Related Info

About International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the independent standard-setting body of the IFRS Foundation. They develop a single set of high quality, understandable, enforceable and globally accepted financial reporting standards based upon clearly articulated principles.

Currency Policy

The Currency Policy followed by Fashionbi Analysts, complies with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and in particular with IAS #21 "The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates" (outlines how to account for foreign currency transactions and operations in financial statements, and also how to translate financial statements into a presentation currency).

It's relevant to point out that misstatements of items are material because they could influence the annual growth rate. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged by the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.

Furthermore, IAS #21 clarifies that "An entity is required to determine a functional currency (for each of its operations if necessary) based on the primary economic environment in which it operates and generally records foreign currency transactions using the spot conversion rate to that functional currency on the date of the transaction.

Taking in consideration, all mentioned above, Fashionbi analysts provide all financial figures in the original and "functional currency" of the parent company in order to show the effective growth rate (Δ%) between t1:t2 (specific time frame) and to reduce the chances of misleading growth rates.

By choosing a different currency, all financial results are converted not in real time but at the closing rate of the Financial Statements.

How Fashionbi Defines Market Segments for the Brands?

Fashionbi is a team of fashion and luxury brand specialists and this is what justifies our expertise, our full understanding of the market.

Brands can have their own vision on where they want to be and where they see themselves moving toward, however, at Fashionbi, we define the brands according to the current status they hold, taking into consideration very crucial indicators.

Here is how we define it:


We consider all those brands as Luxury for whom high quality and craftsmanship are vital for the production, as well as the 'heritage' factor that makes up their image and awareness. Their values are so well-defined that their image is flawless. In this way, brand's values and customer perception match perfectly.

The raw materials used in the production are the most precious and best quality available and the technology, the highest (especially for beauty and watches business). As far as jewelry is concerned, elaborated and unique creations are the most attractive and desired pieces in this segment, as well as couture and haute-couture dresses, for fashion.

With regards to both distribution and communication, luxury brands choose niche channels, through high-end retailers and very unique publications.

Lastly, the price is not the focus in this market and it's quite irrelevant. In fact, brands aiming to maintain their position in this market, tend to rise the prices, usually.

Sales and outlets presence is not applicable.

Example: Hermès, Cartier, Patek Philippe


We consider Premium all the trend setter brands, characterized by very attractive and trendy products. Their designers are those who dictate the seasonal trends and all the industry follows it.

They have a massive distribution and their communication is planned on the most popular traditional and digital channels.

They also tend both to extend their offer to provide a lifestyle experience and to reach cheaper market segments through new collections or brands.

The price difference from the the cheapest to the most expensive products is pretty wide, reduced only in the sales period, which usually happen twice a year. Furthermore, the past seasons' stock is sold in selected outlets throughout the world, both online and offline.

Example: Alexander McQueen, Balenciaga, Longines


Prestige brands belong to the beauty business, exclusively. They provide very high quality products thanks to high standards of technological research.

The price is high but not inaccessible even if the discount policy is not very common.

The communication is massive, usually enhanced by a famous testimonial. Same for the distribution, which can be both worldwide or local (especially for Japanese brands). But still the local distribution is widespread.

Example: Elizabeth Arden, Estée Lauder, Shiseido


Among the Diffusion brands we include all the second, third, fourth, etc. brands/lines, born from a parent brand. The products quality and prices are usually lower than the parent brand and it addresses to a different target.

The communication channels are different, as well, while the distribution is mainly run by the parent brand, until the diffusion brand grows up and achieves its own independence.

Example: Armani Jeans, Z Zegna, Marc by Marc Jacobs


The Bridge brands are quite young and characterized by a lack of strength in their image. They still have a log way to go to establish themselves as trendsetters or luxury strongholds.

They provide mid-high and high quality products, whose price changes accordingly. The distribution strategy is very different brand by brand, too.

The communication strategy is very well established in the national area and they still focus mainly on traditional channels. Nevertheless, they are starting to use the digital ones.

Example: J.Crew, Quantum, Basso & Brooke

Value for Money

Value for Money brands belong to the beauty market, solely. They sell good quality products at a good price. They are not the cheapest brands around, but they are still affordable, definitely.

The distribution is mainly focused in specialized shops and the communication follows the prestige's one.

Example: Athena's, Seikisho, Oscar Blandi


Mass Market brands' main success factor is the low price, characterized by the promise of cheap but trendy pieces of clothing. The product's quality is mid-low and low to keep the costs down.

The distribution is massive and usually via monobrand stores. As far as the communication is concerned, it's massive both online and offline, and favors the collaboration with famous personalities to attract more clients and to enhance their perception as a lifestyle-offering brand.

Usually, they are definitely trend-followers of the premium brands, bringing what's on the runways, to the streets.

All the fast-fashion brands belong to this segment.

Example: Zara, Fossil, Police

Financial Data Availabilty

Financial data is not available when the parent company doesn't provide any financial information regarding its portfolio brands or separate highlights for each brand.

Fashionbi purpose is to provide the real and accurate data. All the financial highlights presented in the reports are coming from the official financial data providers. They are gathered either directly from the companies themselves (if publicly released), or the National Chambers of Commerce of EU or from the worldwide data provider, i.e., US: Bureau van Dijk.

Fashionbi analysts, therefore, provide reports that reflect precisely the financial approach of the company, providing the exact translated copy of the official documents, while following the the company's annual reports structure and computations made by the company itself.